The Indian navy has just completed construction of its second nuclear-missile-capable submarine, demonstrating further that a military technology arms race is alive and well among the “nuclear triangle” of nations including India, Pakistan, and China.

India first tested its Agni-V intermediate ballistic missile, which can reach all of China.

As far as SSBN’s go, China recently put to sea its first operational nuclear-missile submarines, which began deterrent patrols at some point last year. In addition, China has added MIRVs — multiple independent reentry vehicles — to its nuclear missiles, which is a tactic India may soon take as well if it hasn’t done so already.

Both India and China have been working on improving their nuclear targeting capabilities using satellite-fed reconnaissance and intelligence. [source]

Pakistan, meanwhile, whose economy does not break the Global Top 10 (China is second; India is fifth) and cannot hope to afford a substantial investment in SSBNs, has instead opted to build a large, mostly land-based nuclear deterrent capability. While Pakistani military officials have discussed developing a sub-based nuclear deterrent capability, it is not thought to have done so yet. [source]

Why it’s on our radar: Information in this article helps satisfy Priority Intelligence Requirement 2: What are the latest indicators of a U.S.-China conflict?  Each week in our Strategic Intelligence Summary, we gauge the likelihood and scope of conflict with Russia, China, North Korea, and in the Middle East, and track the latest developments in each region.  Subscribe here to receive our premium intelligence products prepared by Intelligence and special operations veterans.